November 1988 MCU Magazine

GENERAL INFORMATION

MCUC

This newsletter is published monthly for distribution to members of the Memphis Commodore Users Club. It is in no way connected with the Commodore Business Machine Ltd. or Commodore Inc. and Commodore products (CBM, PET, C64, C128, VIC20, Amiga) are registered trademarks of Commodore Inc. The MCUC is a nonprofit organization whose purpose is the free exchange of information & knowledge about the use of Commodore microcomputer systems. Memberships are open to anyone; ownership of a computer is not required. Monthly meetings are open to the public & visitors are welcome.

Dues are broken down into two categories. Membership dues may be paid quarterly (3 month) at $6.00 or annually at $20.00. All memberships are Family Memberships. Dues are nonrefundable.

Contribution to the MCUC magazine may be in any wordprocessor, preferably saved as a sequential file. You may submit articles on disk, or a hardcopy, or upload your article to the Memphis Commodore Users Club BBS (366-4676).

The editor reserves the right to reject material submitted relating to illegal services, products or unethical practices. All material submitted becomes the property of MCUC. The 15th of each month is the DEADLINE FOR ARTICLES.

ADVERTISING RATES

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All ads must be in by the 15th.
CIRCULATION: 300 copies

MEETINGS

General Membership Meeting - First Tuesday of each month, 7:00 PM in Fulton Auditorium, State Technical Institution.

Board of Director's Meeting - Second Thursday after General Meeting. 7:30 PM State Tech in the Cafeteria.

128,CP/M,MS-DOS - Now meeting with the Memphis FOG group. 4th Tuesday of each month at the Whitestation Library. Copy session at 6 PM, Meeting starts at 7 PM.

Beginner's Class - Wednesday after the General Meeting at 7:00 PM at the Raleigh Library.

OFFICERS

President 323-1185 Jim Fox
Vice President 767-0737 Ron Montgomery
Secretary 829-3705 Richard Coffman
Treasurer 853-6949 Gary Thurman
Librarian 362-8295 Gary Sparks
Education 377-6416 Bob Earnheart
Newsletter 795-0461 Cheryn Nunn
BBS 366-4676
Sysop 795-0461 Bob Nunn

VICE PRESIDENT'S PAGE

Just let the leaves start to turn and fall and, that's right, you guessed it, its the Christmas shopping season. Since you are recognized by your friends and relatives as a famous computer guru, you are going to be asked for advice about computer purchases.

Naturally you'll want to recommend a C-64 or C-128. We all know they are the most computers for the money with the most diversified software selections. For example, you can buy a top-rated word processor for your Commodore for about $50 or fifty dollars or spend three to five hundred for an IBM clone word processor. Or you can mortgage Your house and buy an Apple.

Whether for business or pleasure, graphics or music, telecommuting, or games, there's no better value than a Commodore eight bit computer. Once you help your friends join the Commodore ranks, you can then help them most by bringing them to MCUC. Then we all win. By the way, help our new members get to know you by introducing yourself at the next meeting and wearing your MCUC name tag.

Ron Montgomery

SIG NEWS

The 128/CPM/MS-DOS Sig has a new meeting time and place. They will be joining forces with the FOG group of Memphis. They will meet at the White Station Library on the 4th Tuesday of every month. There will be a copy session beginning at 6 PM and the meeting will start promptly at 7 PM. Join the group over there to learn all sorts of new things.

TREASURER'S REPORT

TREASURER'S REPORT 10-12-88

OPENING BALANCE 09-11-88 $3500.03
DEPOSITS:
LIBRARY DISKS 106.00
CLUB DUES 346.00
PICNIC REFUND 77.50
-------
$529.50
EXPENSES:
NEWSLETTER POSTAGE $200.00
BBS TELEPHONE (SEPTEMBER) 21.18
NEWSLETTER (OCTOBER) 113.22
Q-LINK (AUGUST) 9.95
GENIE (AUGUST) 6.49
ACCOUNTING PROGRAM 30.14
PICNIC SUPPLIES 120.34
MISC SUPPLIES 42.65
HAMFEST BOOTH 45.00
NEWSLETTER SUPPLIES 14.31
-------
$603.28
CLOSING BALANCE 10-12-88 $3426.25

GARY THURMAN
TREASURER

ARTICLES

We only had one submission this month. It makes it difficult to put together a newsletter with no articles. If you see an interesting conversion of another bbs why not buffer it and upload it. You can also just type in a brief message while on the bbs in feedback and we can edit and turn it into an article.

EDITOR'S DESK

Everyone had a nice time out at HamFest. We met a lot of nice people, sold a few disks and will hopefully see a few new faces we met at HamFest at our November meeting.

Upcoming events for MCUC include a couple of great Demos for November, the Christmas party and the election for new officers in January.

For November, we are planning a Demo on the Lt. Kernal Hard Drive for the Commodore by Kevin Phillips, a demonstration of the Amiga by Matt Buford and as a backup, Pro128 Term.

The Christmas Party is set for December 3, 1988, starting at 6PM till around 10PM. The place has not been set yet, watch for details in the December newsletter plus a special mailout.

The board of directors has selected the nominating committee. They will be working in the months of November and December to find officers to serve for the next year.

See you at the November meeting!!

USER GROUPS

ATTENTION USER GROUPS!!

TRADE LIBRARIES

Any qualified user group wishing to trade disk for disk with their clubs libraries are invited to do so. Just send your catalog disk to the PO Box on the cover with a note and we will reciprocate. We will also exchange disks of the month. Just mail us your disks and we'll see that you get the same amount of our most current disks. Any user group building up their library may join the club, obtain our library catalog and make selections the same way any member may do so. The copying fee for members is $2.00 per disk or 3/$5.00. We also add any user group to our mailing list who mails us their club newsletter.

JIFFY DOS RE-ORDER

Just a reminder. We can reorder Jiffy Dos at the same discount rate if we have a total of 6 reorders for the system chips. This means 6 orders must be placed for either 64+disk and/or 128+disk combinations. Please contact one of the officers if you would like to reorder. We will keep this offer open through November 15.

EDUCATIONAL CORNER

Well it's that time again!! I just got finished talking with john Blackmer about the new user meeting that he taught last month. Boy, was he excited. John has even offered to teach this class, as time permits, each month. Thanks John, I needed that!!! Remember that we've got tapes, books. and modems or you to checkout any time you want. Remember also we teach a new beginners class before each main meeting so if you need help come early. We will also be releasing a new beginners package soon!!!Well I guess that's all for now. Remember to check times and places of club calender for where and when of up and coming events.

BOB

BADGES

Make an effort to wear your badge to the meetings. We have new people there and some of us older members who are terrible with names. LET US KNOW WHO YOU ARE!!!

If you don't have a name badge, see Dick Coffman. the Secretary.

SECRETARY'S NOTES

The official board was called to order at 7:30 PM by Jim Fox, President. Officers in attendance were Ron Montgomery, Vice President, Bob Earnheart, Educational Officer, Cheryn Nunn, Newsletter Editor, Gary Thurman, Treasurer. Richard Coffman, Secretary and Bob Nunn, Sysop.

Members suggested to serve on the nominating committee were Jim West, Gary Prudhomme, Frank Robertson, Mike Black, Guy King, Ben Hudgens, Buddy Wright, Bob Nunn and John Blackmer. The Nominating Committee was selected pending their acceptance to serve.

The New Member Packet is being updated Demos for November meeting will be a demonstration of the Lt. Kernal Hard Drive and of the Amiga. Back up demo will be Pro128 Term.

Board Members will submit equipment needs at the next board meeting. The Board discussed ways to help the Blytheville club get their library started.

Plans are being made for the Christmas Party. Club will furnish decorations, door prizes, etc. Party will be December 3, 1988 starting at 6PM, ending at 10PM.

Membership forms and cards are being updated and redesigned.

Respectfully submitted,

Richard A. Coffman, Secretary

WHAT IS A WEDGE & WHY WOULD I USE ONE?

by Bob Nunn

Recently someone asked me what a wedge was. Put simply it is a small ML program the places itself out of the way of basic (usually), so that you may use the routines without disturbing your program. The Wedge that came with the disk with your drive (DOS 5.1) is usually the first exposure you have to one. It was written because basic 2.0 doesn't have simple drive instructions built in. Commodore thought that the 64 would be used primarily by people with tape drives and that it would not be needed. If you don't mind memorizing all the strings of commands like OPEN 15,8,15 etc. then you won't need a wedge.

For those of us that don't want to memorize command strings, the wedge is a solution. Not the best solution since it goes away any time you turn off the computer. It allows you to load a program with two key strokes and do most drive functions without difficult commands.

In this article I will cover DOS 5.1, Jiffy Dos Wedge, and Turbo Wedge (also known as Klitz Wedge or Super Wedge). I've printed out the entire documentation to Turbo Wedge as it is the most complete and explains more technical details. Most of the commands work with the other wedges you iust sub @ for * on most commands.

DOS 5.1 Screen

COMMAND        FUNCTION
=====================================
SYS52224      Activate DOS 5.1 after
              quitting
↑filename     LOAD & RUN filename prg
↑*            LOAD & RUN first prg.
/filename     LOAD basic program
/$            LOAD directory
%filename     LOAD ML prg filename
←filename     SAVE basic prg filename
@             Read, display, reset
              drive error.
@$            Display directory to
              screen only.
@$:d$=s       Display all sequential
              files beginning with d.
@n:name,id    FORMAT a disk
@r:new=old    RENAME file
@c:new=old    COPY file
@s:filename   SCRATCH filename
@v            VALIDATE disk, closes
              files with *prg
@u            Force DOS to power up
              routine
@i            Force DOS to read bam
@q            QUIT wedge
@#n           Set default drive 8-11
=====================================

JIFFY DOS

This built in dos has some added benefits. It is always there when you power up and has these extended commands added.

COMMAND       FUNCTION
=========================================
CTRL-d       On multi drive systems
             returns control to de-
             fault drive
@u           Un-news a file
@d           List a basic prg to
             screen
Vfilename    VERIFIES a prg
@t:filename  List ascii file to
             screen
@t           copy file to another
             drive(see docs)
@b           disable head rattle
@l           LOCKS files
CTRL-p       PRINT screen
@f           disable function keys
SYS58451     re-enable JIFFY
=========================================

These have been oversimplified in there descriptions. You should be able to see the differences.

This next part is the complete docs to Turbo Wedge. I didn't have a current copy of the latest version so I edited and updated this one where I could. It's worth reading as most of the commands are available in other wedges and it explains in more detail and shows more advanced

TURBO WEDGE

by Jim Klitzing

Command Summary

* read-disk error channel
** send DOS command to disk
*a auto line numbering or renumbering
*b read or write a disk block
*c copy a file or entire disk,
change file type, recover
scratched file
*d delete a range of lines
*f show how much free memory
*g get disk directory
*h print hi-res screen
*k koala viewer-p
*l show load address of program file
*m enable Micromon monitor
*p print sequential file
*q disable (quit) wedge
*t terminal
*u un-new a program
*v doodle viewer-p
*w word processor
*x dump screen to printer
*| computer cold start (reset)
*# change wedge
*= change disk drive # (and wedge #)
*+ change border color
*- change background color
change character color
*? show command menu
*/ load program file
*@ load prg. file to header address
*↑ load program file and run it
*← save program file
*: load sequential file
*; save sequential file
*, load user file
*. save user file

The following commands are available when using Micromon (*m)

a assembler
b break set
c compare memory
d disassembler
e disconnect micromon
f fill memory
g go run
h hunt memory
j jump to subroutine
1 load memory from device
m memory display
n new locator
o offset or branch calculate
p printer toggle (serial bus)
q quick trace
r register display
s save memory to device
t transfer memory
v verify memory with device
w walk through program
x exit to basic (brk enabled)
" ascii conversion
# decimal conversion
$ hex conversion
% binary conversion
& checksum memory
( enable command tone
) disable command tone
+ add hex numbers
- subtract hex numbers
> disk directory

Command detail and syntax

I wrote this program with several objectives in mind........ I wanted to be able to access a lot of utility programs without having to load them in everytime I wanted to use one. Also, I wanted it to be fast when running programs, not change any standard basic commands, nor use up any of the basic memory space. I also wanted to be able to use abbreviated DOS commands.

The wedge resides in memory from hex a$001 to $cfff. Any program that does not use memory in this range should be able to co-exist. When Micromon is in use, the cassette buffer is also used. About 2/3 of the memory used by the wedge is under the basic rom. Since the wedge is all machine language, basic is not needed to perform any of the wedge commands, and is switched out (temporarily) while they are being performed. All wedge commands must be preceeded by an asterisk (*). The asterisk tells basic (direct mode only) that the command that follows should be turned over to the wedge interpreter.

You can load the wedge with the following command:load"turbo wedge",8,1 Next, NEW and enable the wedge with SYS 49152. The wedge is now ready and set to communicate with disk drive # 8 (default setting).

Notes: Unless otherwise noted, any references to numbers can be in decimal or hex. If you specify hex, the number must be preceeded by the $ symbol. Example ---- 42 (decimal) or $2a (hex) Commands which write data to buffers in the 64 will not disturb basic programs, nor will they overwrite variables or strings. Buffers are allocated by the wedge from areas that have not yet been used by your basic programs. The wedge finds these areas by reading the vectors at locations 49 through 52.

*

This command alone will read the error channel of the disk drive and printit on the screen.

**

Sends any text following the ** to the disk drive as a DOS command. Examples:

**n:diskname,       ->  formats a disk
**i                 ->  initializes drive
**s:filename        ->  scratches a file
**v                 ->  validates a disk
**r:newname=oldname ->  renames a file
*a,10 / *a,1000,10 / *a

This command can take any of those 3 forms. The first will enable auto line number feeds. After giving the command, you can start the process by typing in a basic program line. When you press return, the next line number will be waiting for you on the following line, and the cursor will be waiting one space to the right of the #'s. Auto line number feeds will be disconnected automatically when any function is performed other than editing or entering program lines. This includes listing or running programs, pokes, peeks, etc. (otherwise it would interfer with these functions). The number following the comma can be any number from 1 to 63999.

The second form of this command (2 #'s) is used to renumber a basic program residing in the 64. The first number is the number you want the first line to be, and the second is the step size between line numbers.

The third form of this command disconnects auto line number feeds.

*br,$20,$2 / *bw,$20,$2

The *br command will read a block of data from the disk, display the location of the buffer where the data is stored & enable Micromon so that you can display the data (see Micromon command docs). Since Micromon displays information in hex, it's usually a good idea to specify hex numbers in the block-read and block-write wedge commands (to avoid confusion). The first number is the track, the second is the sector (block).

The *bw command will write a block of data from the buffer to a block on the disk. This command is usually used after a block-read command, where you have modified the data and wish to write it back to the block. This is very powerful. If you goof using it, it can really mess up a disk, so it's a good idea to have an extra copy of the disk on hand as insurance. For this reason, you will also be prompted to confirm your intent to write to the block (makes you think about it one last time).

*c:filename / *c:filename,type / *c* -/*c**

The *c:filename command is used to make copies of single files. The file is read into a buffer from the source disk and you are prompted for another disk (must be formatted). Once you have inserted the destination disk, pressing RETURN will cause the buffered file to be written to it. For large files, it will be necessary to swap the disks until the file is copied (you will be prompted to do so). Example....

*c:dog will copy the file named "dog".

No need to specify file type, as that info is read from the directory.

If you use this command on a file that has been scratched, it will recover the file (not copy it). The file will be recovered as a program file unless you specify otherwise, as in the following command.

The *c:filename,type command is used to change file types, or to recover scratched files as a particular file type. For example, *c:docs,s will change the file named "docs" to a sequential file, or will recover a scratched file named "docs" as a sequential file. One final note on copying single files........relative files are not supported. However, you can copy relative files with the next 2 commands.

The *c* command will make a copy of the entire disk. Disks with a lot of data on them will need to be swapped a few times (you'll be prompted), and the destination disk must already be formatted. All blocks allocated in the BAM will be copied. The *c** command will cause all blocks to be copied, whether they are allocated in the BAM or not.

*d100-400 / *d-300 / *d200-

Deletes a specified range of program lines. In the first example, all lines from 100 to 400 (inclusive) will be deleted. In the second, all from 0 to 300 and in the third, all from 200 up. This command also performs a CLR.

*f

Reads out how much unused memory is left for basic in hex and decimal value

*g

Prints the directory of the disk to the screen. This command will not disturb basic programs like the load"$",8 command does. Pressing the CTRL key will slow the display, any other key will stop it and return you to command mode.

*l:filename

Reads out the load address of a program file in hex and decimal.

*m

Enables Micromon, a machine language monitor program. Many versions of this program exist, so I won't go into a detailed list of the commands and their syntax. There is good documentation available in Compute's First Book of Commodore 64, though, and the version used in the wedge is very similar. Some of the differences are that the wedge version resides under the basic rom from $b000 to $bfff, and is supported by several wedge subroutines; the 'p' command toggles the printer (device 4) on the serial bus instead of on the RS232 port; etc. Not different enough to matter much.

*p:filename

Prints a sequential file to the screen or to a printer (device 4 on the serial bus). Pressing the CTRL key while printing to the screen will slow the display, any other key will pause. While paused, pressing 'x' will terminate the operation, any other key will resume it.

*q

Disables the wedge program. To reenable it, you must SYS49152.

*t

Very simple term with no options. You must use your modems command set.

*u

Un-new's a program. This command is useful to those of us who accidentally type NEW and wish we hadn't. It will recover the program (as long as you haven't loaded in another one yet). Also performs a CLR.

*x

Dumps the screen to the printer. The command line is erased just before the dump so that you can copy the screen without having *x show up on your printout. It's good practice to issue this command from a line other than the last (issuing it from the last line will cause the screen to scroll).

This is a fairly simple screen dump utility. It will not support bitmapped screens, reverse video will be printed as non-reverse, etc. However, it will support upper and lower case characters and CBM graphics characters.

It does it by reading the register at $d011 prior to opening the printer file. If the mode is upper/lower case, a secondary address of 7 is sent to the printer else it sends a zero instead. Tested with the CBM 1525, Prowriter 8510 and the Hewlett-Packard "Thinkjet".

*!

Sends the computer to it's cold start routine (same as typing SYS64738).

*#9

Switches the wedge number so that you can communicate with a disk drive of a different address (device 9 in this case). You can specify a device number from 8 to 31, but you must specify it in decimal (as in the example).

*=9

Changes both the wedge number and the number of the disk drive you are currently communicating with. If you are currently dealing with drive 8, giving this command will change the drive number to 9 and set the wedge to communicate with device 9. Same syntax rules apply as in *# command.

#+14 / *-14 / *£5

These commands change the border, background and character color respectively.

*+14 would change the border color to light blue, *-14 changes background to light blue, and *£5 will make the text green. Numbers must be specified in decimal. You can give these commands without numbers (*+ *- or *£). In case, the color will be incremented to the next higher- numbered one.

*?

Displays an abbreviated command menu for quick reference.

*/filename / *@filename / *↑filename / *←filename

The first example loads a program file the same as load"filename",device. The second is the same as load"filename", device,l. However, the basic pointers will not be disturbed. This command is usually used to load machine language programs, and works the same as the DOS WEDGE command %filename (loads to the file header address). The third example will load and then run a program (usually used on basic programs). The fourth is used to save a program, as in save"filename",device.

In all of these examples, you can specify addresses (optional). If you specify addresses for the save command, the syntax must follow this form:

*←filename,addrl,addr2

The first address is the start of the save, the second is one byte MORE than the last address to be included in the save. Addresses can be hex or decimal.

For the load commands, the syntax is like this:

*/filename,addr     *@filename,addr
*↑filename,addr

Specifying a load address will cause the basic pointers to remain untouched, will override header addresses and cause the load & run (*↑) command to default to load only.

*:filename / *;filename

These commands will load and save sequential files, respectively. I use it to put files into RAM somewhere (I usually specify an address to load to) I can examine the data with Micromon. Once in RAM, the data can be modified and written back, ignored, whatever. Addresses are optional here, too.

*,filename / *.filename

Load and save user files, repectively. Addresses optional.

*W - WEDGE TEXT EDITOR

Due to memory limitations, this is a SIMPLE text editor, but it will still allow you to do some unique things. You can load or save files in standard ASCII or PETascii (CBM files), set or reset margins or page length at any time, merge text files and more. And, for me anyway, it's a very uncomplicated and easy to use editor. No imbedded commands, etc.

Creating a document

From the EDITOR menu, clear the text buffer by selecting 1 and pressing RETURN. You will be asked to confirm the command (just a safety precaution for those like me who sometimes forget to save things before erasing them). Next, set up the margins and page length you want with selection 2. Default values are: left margin 5, right 75, lines per page 66. Just pressing RETURN@3 times will put those values in place. Now you can enter the edit mode with selection 3 (default menu selection). If you ever get a ?FORMAT ERROR message, it will probably be because the text buffer was not initialized before entering the edit mode for the first time, or the margins were set to illegal values (left > 77 or too close to right or right > 80).

NOTE: You can return to the menu at any time by pressing the STOP key.

The screen will clear and (if you used the default margin values) you will see bars at the left and right sides of your screen. These are the margin markers, and at the bottom of the screen will be a status line. You will not be able to type into the margin markers, as they are there to help you format your text and let you know where your lines start and end. All screen lines will be combined in pairs as 80 column lines, which will leave you with 12 lines on the screen at a time. You can identify which page, line and column the cursor is on by reading the status line at the bottom of the screen. Type a line of text. At the end of the line, press RETURN to get to the next line, or just keep on typing. Words will not be broken at the right margin marker, because of the editor's automatic PARSING feature. If the last letter on a line is not a space, the editor will move the entire word to the next line for you. There are some safety features built into this routine, too. If there is text on the next line, parsing will not take place. This allows you to edit a previous line without accidentally dumping text on the next one. Also, parsing will not operate on words longer than 10 characters. That was done to allow the use of long strings of dashes (as in some of the previous lines in this DOC). Parsing is there to allow you to type without having to watch the screen. Be wary of shifted spaces...the editor treats them as characters (not spaces), and they can cause unexpected results. especially if they are on the next line...the editor will not parse, thinking there is text there. This can he used to FORCE a word to stay on the previous line, should you want it to. An example of this is the word at the end of this line.. end.

CURSOR KEYS

Cursor right and left work as you would expect them to. Cursor up and down are a bit different. They move the cursor 2 screen lines at a time (which is really ONE 80 COLUMN LINE). The insert and delete keys will work as expected, but only on the current line. When holding the delete key down, the cursor will make its way only as far as the left margin. If you want to delete part of the previous line, move the cursor there with a cursor left, and then continue deleting. The insert key will push all text from the cursor position on towards the right margin. Text pushed into the right margin cannot be recovered. The home key works normally, but screen clear is not supported.

CTRL D and CTRL I

CTRL d will delete the current line and draw all forward lines in to close the gap. CTRL i will open up a blank line, pushing all lines forward from the current line on. Holding CTRL d or CTRL i will allow you to quickly delete or insert large portions of text.

SCROLLING THE SCREEN AND THE TEXT BUFFER

Attempting to move the cursor past the bottom of the screen will cause the screen to scroll forward. Reverse scrolling will happen at the top of the screen. When you move the cursor to the end of available memory, forward movement will stop. The same is true for reverse movement at the screen's top. If you plan to create or load a big document. You should free up as much memory as possible by typing NEW in the command mode prior to entering the editor. Be sure to clear text memory too, or you may get a screenful of "garbage" or a ?FORMAT ERROR message when you attempt to enter the edit mode. 481 lines are available with a big buffer like this (8 pages at. 60 lines per).

LOADING FILES

You can load an ASCII file or a PET-ASCII file. If the file was not created with this editor, the margins will default to 0 (left) and 80 (right), otherwise the editor will create the margins from information contained in the first few bytes of the file. More on how it does this later. It's a good idea to clear text memory before a load, though, or you will have some merged text...it's surprised me at times. This can also he used to some advantage. After a load, you will be returned to the editor menu. Pressing RETURN will put you into the edit mode where you can read the file, edit it or re-save it as either an ASCII or PET-ASCII file. I use the latter trick to convert files all the time.

SAVING FILES

Same options are available, but you may want to know a few of the technical details of the save. All blank lines are saved as a carriage return (or a carriage return and linefeed for ASCII files). Also, carriage returns are added at the end of pages to provide perforation skips for your printer. The editor will assume your text page is 66 lines per page. If you have your lines per page set at 60 (function 2 from the menu), 6 carriage returns will be added after every 60 lines. If you don't want these added to your file, just reset the lines per page to 66 prior to saving the file. If you reload a file that has these extra CR's you'll see blank lines inserted in your text. Resaving such a file without first deleting these lines could cause chaos in your page formatting, so be sure you either delete the lines or reset the lines per page to 66 prior to resaving. Also, if you save a file that "maxed out" your text buffer, the extra CR's will cause a reload to ignore the last part of your lengthened document, so be aware of these details when you save.

All files saved by the editor contain information for setting up the left and right margins. This information is contained in the first few bytes. To explain this, let's assume you are saving a document with a left margin of 5 and a right margin of 75. The first 5 bytes of the file will be nulls (binary zeros), the next byte will be a 128 (separator) and the next 5 bytes will be nulls. To printers, nulls and 128's are transparent...they are ignored. These characters are also ignored by most BBS systems. CIS ignores them just fine. However, the editor does not ignore the m, and uses them to set up the margins when you load the file. If your margins were set to 0 left & 80 right, no nulls or separator bytes will be saved in the file. This makes the editor useful for creating or editing source code files for an assembler (like the CBM assembler).

MERGING TEXT FILES

Here's how you do it...load the first file and place the cursor past the last line in the file (in the edit mode). Press the STOP key to take you back to the menu and load the second file. The second file will start loading from the line you left the cursor on when you went to the menu. Armed with that information, one could merge (or insert) text from one file into another just by leaving the cursor in the appropriate place in the text. You can even do a "cut and paste" operation by opening up a gap in your text with CTRL I and merging text from another file into the gap.

HAMFEST 1988

[Photo: MCUC Booth & Earnheart's Computer Repair booth were side by side.]

[Photo: Wade blocks the view again, but we're still glad to see him.]

[Photo: I guess Susie will never sell all of those disk cases]

[Photo: The video display stopped many interested onlookers]

[Photo: Heavy crowd of onlookers]

[Photo: Jim West looks for a disk while Cheryn stands in a stupor]

[Photo: Ralph Phillips is one of the Hams]

[Photo: I'll give you St. Charles for Boardwalk]

[Photo: Ham Disks for the Commodore]

[Photo: Marylou checks her stash while Susie helps]

HAM WHAT?

by Bob Nunn

I have to admit the first time I heard of HAM FEST I thought we were going to be sampling hickory smoked pork butt and really couldn't understand what a computer would have to do with ham. MCUC attended the HAMFEST this year, and we did well. We sold disks both library and blank to the public. We also passed nut newsletters and signed up a few new members am well as renewed a few.

But to get back to HAM FEST, I found this article back in the December 86 "Bit Bucket". It was written by Ralph Phillips and I'm sure he won't mind us rerunning it. I hope it explains a bit more about...

THE MARRIAGE OF THE RADIO AND THE COMPUTER

By Ralph Phillips
Edited by Bob Nunn

If you were at the recent HAMFEST, you may have seen several examples of marriages of amateur radio to computer technology. Such applications are spreading like wildfire - it's the wave of the future, so get on your surfboard.

It all started after WWII when surplus teletype machines were made available to radio amateurs. Such a system required a keyboard - printer machine, a modem called a terminal unit (TU), and transmit-receive apparatus. A great many radio amateurs built their own TU and commenced communicating worldwide on RATTY (Radio-Teletype). This system uses a five level code; that is, five signalling elements (mark or space) per character, invented about 100 years ago by a frenchman named Baudot. A signalling element is called "BAUD".

Although RATTY can be and often is, programmed on a computer, the Baudot code does not have sufficient characters to perform error-checking and other computer control functions. For purposes of error checking, a computerized version of Baudot was developed. Called SITOR for maritime use and AMTOR for amateur radio applications, the transmitting station sends out Baudot characters in groups of three, and the receiving station either acknowledges receipt or requests repeat, automatically, depending upon computer error checking. (Ed. Note - this is what protocol does for telecommunication)

A new system came into being with the development of the ASCII code. (American Standard for Information interchange) ASCII is a seven level code which doubles, and doubles again, the 64 character codes available to Baudot. With 256 code characters available, a great number of control functions can be executed, along with alphanumeric printer functions. Although ASCII can be used RATTY fashion, a new protocol called PACKET has been developed, and several versions are being used by the military, commercial, and amateur activities. Essentially, information containing both data and control functions is transmitted in packets of not more than 128 characters. (ed note now we know where x-modem came from) If the receiving station does not acknowledge receipt (after checking for errors), the transmitting station repeats until the receiving station acknowledges receipt, or until the repeat counter runs down after a selected number of tries.

AMTOR and PACKET both lend themselves readily to computer technology. The computer serves as a smart terminal, and the processing functions are contained in the TU. The TU works in part, like a plug in cartridge, and it also controls and modulates the radio apparatus.

If you want to join the fun, you will need an Amateur Radio Operators license from the FCC, of a grade that permits voice bandwidth emission. Receiving a license requires that you pass an exam on legal matters covering what you need to know for operating in a legal manner for your grade (not much more difficult than a drivers test), and also the ability to communicate in Morse Code. Classes leading to qualification are conducted by various amateur clubs. In Memphis the Memphis Amateur Radio Association (MARA) is the club you should contact here. If you can't make the classes you can study on your own or seek help from one of our club members. Study booklets are available and there is a practice disk in the MCUC Library.

There are five grades of radio amateur license; novice, technician, general, advanced, and extra. Because novice grade does not permit voice bandwidth emission, you will need a higher grade to engage in RATTY, AMTOR, or PACKET. The only barriers to an amateur radio license is total deafness or your own unwillingness to try. Children as young as five years have made it, and I have known personally three girls who achieved general grade by the age of seven. What are you waiting for?

QUICKIES

Commodore reportedly uses 5% of the world's supply of dynamic ram.

Jack Tramiel, head guy out at Atari and ex-Commodore official admitted that his Federal Departments Stores sell more Commodore Amiga's than Atari ST's.

CLUB BBS NOTES

We have 146 BBS members as of this date, OCT. 15, 1988. Many are club guests. I hope you have been happy with the BBS this year it has been fairly simple to keep up. I recently had some problems with the MSD hanging up. If you tried the board and couldn't get it to answer during the day it likely was the MSD. I cleaned the varnish or whatever you call that brown gunk on the rails off and put a bit of silicon oil on them. It seems good as new and I hope that took care of the problem.

We are still in dire need of sub-ops. Gary Sparks, Bob Earnheart, Warren Sauer, and Frank Robertson have all been a big help. We still need someone to take care of user input area and someone for the color graphics area. I wouldn't mind changing the sub title on CPICS and start up a new subject. If you want to help out and have a good subject please leave a little feedback. I also could use some help in checking out the uploads. I don't have a 128 and cannot check the quality. Being a sub-op doesn't take much time and you get much better access. Apply now by leaving feedback to Bob.

MORE QUICKIES

COMMODORE'S CUSTOMER SUPPORT LINE- (205) 436-4200. It's a voice line but you can call with your modem and get the same answers.

IBM's new dos version 4.0 fixes some of the problems that the older versions of dos had, such as 32 meg hard disk partition limitations. They have also added a dos shell that has pull down menus to make the system easier to use. But that was just the good news. The bad news is that it's not compatible with programs like Norton Utilities, Sidekick Plus, and Microsoft Windows/386 to name a few.

MCUC PICNIC 1988

[Photo: U. V. won't need seconds after this]

[Photo: Did Ron really spike the cool aid?]

[Photo: E=MC2]

[Photo: Gary Thurman and son guard the soft drink. It must of worked not one stolen.]

[Photo: Ain't it the life]

[Photo: The kids had fun fishing]

A LIGHT IN THE DARK

Reprinted from the Cougar Courier Phoenix, AZ, A.B.A.C.U.S. Script Bakersfield, CA

For years, it has been believed that electric bulbs emitted light. However, recent information from Bell Labs has proven otherwise. Electric bulbs don't emit light, they suck dark. Thus they now call these bulbs dark suckers. The dark sucker theory, according to a Bell Labs spokesperson, proves the existence of dark, that dark has mass, is heavier than light, and that dark is faster than light.

The basis of the dark sucker theory is that electric bulbs suck dark. Take, for example, the dark suckers in the room where you are. There is less dark right next to them than there is elsewhere. The larger the dark sucker, the greater its capacity to suck dark. Dark suckers in a parking lot have a much greater capacity than the ones in this room. As with all things, dark suckers don't last forever. Once they are full of dark, they can no longer suck. This is proven by the black spot on a full dark sucker. A candle is a primitive dark sucker. A new candle has a white wick. You will notice after the first use the wick turns black, representing all the dark which has been sucked into it. If you hold a pencil next to the wick of an operating candle, the tip will turn black because it got in the way of the dark flowing into the candle. Unfortunately, these primitive dark suckers have a very limited range.

There are also portable dark suckers. The bulbs in these can't handle all of the dark by themselves, and must be aided by a dark storage unit. When the dark storage unit is full, it must either be emptied or replaced before the portable dark sucker can operate again.

Dark has mass. When dark goes into a dark sucker, friction from this mass generates heat. Thus, it is not wise to touch an operating dark sucker. Candles present a special problem, as the dark must travel in the solid wick instead of through glass. Thus, it can be very dangerous to touch an operating candle.

Dark is also heavier than light. If you swim deeper and deeper, you notice it gets darker and darker. When you reach a depth of approximately fifty feet, you are in total darkness. This is because the heavier dark sinks to the bottom of the lake or ocean and the lighter light floats to the top.

The immense power of dark can be utilized to man's advantage. We can collect the dark that has settled to the bottom of the lakes and push it through turbines which generates electricity and helps push dark to the ocean, where it is safely stored.

In conclusion, Bell Labs stated that dark suckers make all our lives much easier. So the next time you look at an electric bulb, remember that it is indeed a dark sucker.

LAND OF THE LOST

You know you are in trouble when you discover your right hand is swollen and find out its from using your mouse.

You're near gone when you watch whats happening in the room by viewing it in the glare of the monitor.

You're lost when you order disks in hundred lots and run out in a week.

TECH TIPS

By Jeff Herr, S.C. CUBED, Sacramento. CA. from the Cougar Courier, Phoenix AZ. Edited by Bob Nunn

I was asked why the machine sometimes needs to be turned off when it locked-up and why run/stop restore, or even reset, wouldn't help clear up that locked-up condition. The reason for this is that the contents of memory are not cleared or reset unless the machine is turned off. The typical lock up is caused by accidental alterations of certain critical memory locations. This causes the operating system to get lost. The on board program doesn't stop, but rather goes into a loop permanently. (In a user this is called OPERATOR HEADGAP)Ed. Note

The user might find garbage on the screen or no response to the keyboard. At this time the user has three choices. The first, the run/stop restore approach. This may or may not work, depending on whether or not the addresses containing the NMI vector (318 HEX) have been altered. This works if your program is in a tight loop and isn't randomly jamming values into memory locations. Run/stop restore causes a non-maskable interrupt to occur and after the NMI processed, control is given to the user..maybe.

The second route taken in the case of lock up is utilizing a reset button that some of you may have installed on your own. This accomplishes the same thing as turning off the machine...almost. The difference is that the power to the memory isn't interrupted. Reset works very well in the highest percentage of lock-ups. In effect, this causes a complete restart from the word go: an execution of the power up sequence.

Here is the kicker, the routine used on every power up sequence (RAMTAS) is a nondestructive process. It runs though most of the RAM, not clearing or resetting as it goes along, but carefully testing the memory and returning what was already there...errors included.

This is why a game that uses an autostart code can't be exited with this method. This is also why the third choice is power off and is the only sure cure for the problem. Only then will memory be cleaned up. Or I should say only then will the bad memory information be randomized into oblivion.

So if all else fails and the machine still has the upper hand, turn it off. That always works!

ANNUAL MCUC CHRISTMAS PARTY

WHEN: DECEMBER 3, 1988
TIME: 6:00 PM-10 PM
WHERE: UNDECIDED

LOTS OF GOOD FOOD AND
FUN. BRING A GAG GIFT FOR
AN ADULT. CHILDREN WELCOME
& SHOULD BRING GIFT
APPROPRIATE FOR THEIR SEX

LOOK FOR SPECIAL MAILOUT
WITH MORE DETAILS!!


Earnheart Computer Repair
5347 Flowering Peach
Memphis, Tennessee 38115
(901) 366-0303

THE COMMODORE REPAIR SPECIALIST!

We are now dealers for the following lines:
Xetec - featuring the best price in the country on Lt. Kemal Hard Drives!
Micro Design Systems - Jiffy DOS & Midwest Printers

Repair Pricing

Bench Test $10.00
Commodore 64 & C $45.00
(this is with one chip change,$10.00 additional for each chip)
64 Keyboard Repair $25.00
64 & C Entire Board $40.00
1541 Drive (Clean & Align) $20.00
1541 Logic Repair $55.00
(this is with one chip change,$10.00 additional for each chip)
Lower Mechanism $65.00
Both Mechanisms $85.00
64 Power Supply (non-rebuildable) $35.00
64 Power Supply (rebuildable) $45.00

This is just an example of our pricing. We do specialize in the repair of Commodore Computers, but we also repair other types of computers, printers, and monitors. We carry a quality assortment of computer equipment supplies such as ribbons, cables, and at present are exclusive dealers of super quality, budget priced Operator Headgap Public Domain Software. We also buy and sell used computer equipment. Please keep us in mind for your future needs.

MY TRIP TO OHIO

If you read my last article, you will remember I made a trip to a User Group meeting while I was in Oklahoma. This trip was no different. While in Columbus, Ohio, I made a meeting of the Commodore Club of Central Ohio. I again found some things I liked. For one thing, they have a sign up sheet to buy disks at the meeting. That's right!! For $2.00, they will make any disk in the library you want at their meetings. There will be anywhere from four to six complete computer systems at each meeting and they will do all the disk copying there. They have a very large group, about five hundred strong which is broken into two separate clubs. One is the 64/128 group and the other is the Amiga group. They also have a special-of-the-month buy. This month, they had the Epson FX500 on sale for $279.00, not bad for a 24 pin dot printer. The president of the Amiga group was there with the special. They seem to basically have the same type of meetings as we do but I found them to be more interested in their club than we are. It could have been a freak meeting but there were more than a hundred and fifty people at the meeting. The 64/128 group has two hundred and ten members!! I also met the president of a users group from Brice, Ohio and she is sending me a copy of the library on disks. I think she said there were eleven disks. Both clubs would like to swap newsletters each month, so the Board here will talk about that I guess. They each gave me a copy of their newsletters and I will bring them to the next meeting I attend. This month and the first of next month, I will be back in Oklahoma for another school. Will this ever end?? We've got a great club but we are what we make it, so keep making those meetings. See you at the December meeting.

Roy Johnson

1541 MAINTENANCE - WHERE & WHEN?

General care every four months

Care every 12 months

Care every 18 months

BOB

PD DISKS

We hope we have the monthly disk quality problem solved. The Datel Duplikator is now in use and it is a dilly: a copy in 8 seconds!! Let Gary Sparks, the Librarian, know if you are continuing to experience problems with the disks.

THE COMMODORE FIXER 1541/1571 DRIVES

SUBMITTED BY BILL DUN

Symptoms Possible Solution
6502 6522 32530201 90122905 LM 311 582 9602 32557202
ERROR LED STAYS ON ALL THE TIME X X X
DRIVE MOTOR RUNS ALL THE TIME & LED STAYS ON X X
DRIVE MOTOR RUNS ALL THE TIME & LED STAYS OFF X X
AFTER WARM UP, MOTOR RUNS ALL THE TIME X
DOES NOT LOAD WHEN HOT OR LED FLASHES 3 TIMES X X
SEARCHES WITH LED FLASHING CONTINUOUSLY X
SEARCHING WITH NO RED LED X
DRIVE FAILS TO READ X X X
FAILS TO FORMAT DISK X X
STEPPER MOTOR DOES NOT STEP FORWARD X X
WILL NOT SAVE WHEN DRIVE HEATS UP X
LIGHTS STAY ON, MOTOR RUNS CONTINUOUSLY X
CHECK THE FOLLOWING
NO LED'S ON POWER UP FUSE & POWER SWITCH
+5/12 VOLT LINES
POWER CORD
ERROR LED FLASHES ON POWER UP ALL RAM & ROM'S
DRIVE MOTOR RUNS, WITH NO RED OR GREEN LED'S VR2
POWER TRANSFORMER
LOADS PROGRAMS WITH RED LED FLASHING DRIVE SPEED
STEPPER MOTOR
LOADING INTERMITTENT ALL ROM'S
DRIVE ALIGNMENT
MESSAGE OF 'FILE NOT FOUND' CLEAN DRIVE HEAD
0 STOP ADJ.
ALIGNMENT
DRIVE SPEED IS NOT STABLE DC MOTOR
LOCKS-UP WHEN LOADING 901229-05
FAILS THE PERFORMANCE TEST & DISPLAYS ERROR 21 CHECK TEST DISK
DRIVE MOTOR
FAILS THE PERFORMANCE TEST & DISPLAYS ERROR 27 STOP ADJUSTMENT
PASSES PERFORMANCE TEST TO TRACK 18 DISPLAYS ERROR 21 READ-WRITE HEAD
PASSES PERFORMANCE TEST BUT WILL NOT LOAD PROGRAMS STEPPER MOTOR
FLASHING LIGHT ON & OFF DURING LOADING ALIGNMENT

THE COMMODORE FIXER C-64

SUBMITTED BY BILL DUN

ROMS
SYMPTOMS 6510 6526 6581 6567 PLA 226 227 225 6701
CURSOR JUMPS BACK TO THE HOME POSITION X
ABNORMAL COLORS APPEAR IN THE LETTERS X
DIF. CHARACTERS ARE DISPLAYED & CURSOR IS LOCKED X X
SYSTEM DOES NOT RESET & RESTORE DOES NOT WORK X X X
CURSOR DISAPPEARS AFTER WARM UP X
SYNTAX ERROR DISPLAYS AFTER WARM UP X
SYSTEM RESETS & LONG PRES. DO NOT LOAD X X
KEYBOARD DOES NOT OPERATE WHEN WARM X X
BLANK SCREEN ON POWER UP X X X X
NO CURSOR DISPLAYED, INTERMITTENT SCREEN X
ON POWER UP,'PRESS PLAY ON TAPE', & DISPLAY BLINKS X
ON POWER UP, THE CURSOR DOES NOT WORK X
WHEN RETURN IS PRESSED, THE CURSOR GOES TO HOME POSITION X
POKE COMMAND DOES NOT WORK X
JOYSTICK DOES NOT OPERATE CORRECTLY X
NO CHARACTER LETTERING IS DISPLAYED X X X X
GRAPHIC CHARACTERS INSTEAD OF LETTERS DISPLAYED X X
POWER UP MESSAGE APPEARS, BUT NO CURSOR X X
DEVICE NOT PRESENT WHEN DISK IS USED X X
DISK DRIVE CONTINUES TO SEARCH, TRYING TO LOAD X
INCORRECT SCREEN COLORS OR NO COLOR X X
KEYBOARD DOES NOT WORK X
FLASHING COLOR OR BLOCKS X
GAME CART. DOES NOT WORK X X X
UNIT DEAD - 40% POSSIBILITY PLA X
USER PORT DOES NOT FUCTION ( EG. MODEM ) X
NO SOUND X
MISSING NOTES X
GAME PADDLES DO NOT WORK X X
WHITE BAND SCROOLS DOWN THE SCREEN (60 HZ HUM) CHECK P/SUPPLY & VR2 REGULATOR
WAVY SCREEN AFTER WARM UP CHECK P/SUPPLY & 6567
BLACK BAND SCROLLS AFTER WARM UP CHECK P/SUPPLY & VR2 REGULATOR
OUT OF MEMORY ERROR ON POWER UP CHECK RAMS 4146-U1-U12, U21-U24
POWERS UP W/GRAPHIC DISPLAY & BLINKING CURSOR CHECK U14
POWERS UP WITH ALL CHARACTERS AS BLOCKS CHECK U26
UNIT COMPLETELY DEAD CHECK POWER SUPPLY
CHARACTERS ARE ALL OVER THE SCREEN & LOCKS UP CHECK POWER SUPPLY

PLA CHIP IS AN 8SQ2S100

ROM CHIPS ARE
901226-01 ( BASIC )
901227-01 ( KERNAL)
901225-01 ( CHARTERR)

DISK OF THE MONTH ORDER FORM

Please note how many of each disk you want and mail your order to MCUC, PO Box 34095, Memphis, TN 38134-0095. Disks are $2 each or 3 for $5. Add $1 postage for up to 3 disks and an additional $.25 for any quantity over 3.

September 1988

Qty

( ) Public Domain Solutions July 1988 - Asst. Utilities, Games and Pics
( ) Public Domain Solutions 128 July 1988 - Typing Tutor
( ) Games #28 - Bomz, Damsels, Uno and more!
( ) Sound & Graphics 9 - Macto64 1525 and Gallery 1525
( ) MCUC 128 9/88 - CGTerm and StarBBS

October 1988

Qty

( ) October 128 - Star Trek, Turk Keys and Cat 80 V3.01
( ) October 128 - Intro to Physics
( ) Home Applications 6 - EasyCheckbook, Recipe Saver, Remod-V1.0, Pip.64
( ) Blazin' Forth - 2 disk set SPECIAL. PRICE $3 for the set

October 128

  0 "128             "JS
 85 "STAR TREK 128"   PRG   3 "FOREST"          PRG
 68 "STAR TREK DOCS"  SEQ   5 "CAVERNS"         PRG
128 "SEQ-80"          PRG   2 "RETIREMENT"      PRG
  4 "STARFIRE"        PRG   2 "F-DIR.DOS"       PRG
  5 "SP EXPLORATION"  PRG   2 "F-DOS"           PRG
  7 "SP ATTACK"       PRG   2 "F-BASIC"         PRG
  5 "EARTH"           PRG   2 "F-DEV.CH6"       PRG
  3 "CONVERT ENERGY"  PRG  14 "TURK-KEYS"       PRG
  2 "VIEWSCREEN"      PRG   1 "TURK-LOAD"       PRG
  3 "STATUS"          PRG   7 "CHEAT-SHEET"     SEQ
  2 "LAND ON PLANET"  PRG   8 "TURK-KEY.DOC"    SEQ
  3 "LAND EXPLORATION"PRG 142 "CAT 80 V3.01"    PRG
  3 "LAND CITY"       PRG  27 "CAT 80 DOCS"     SEQ
  4 "SP CHECK"        PRG   2 "F-+DIR.DOS"      PRG
  3 "MINERAL NINE"    PRG   2 "F-+DOS"          PRG
  1 "ENERGY NINE"     PRG   2 "F-+BASIC"        PRG
  6 "STORE"           PRG   2 "F-+DEV.CH6"      PRG
  6 "TEMPLE"          PRG  81 "(SPY"            PRG
  5 "CASTLE"          PRG  15  BLOCKS FREE

October 128

  0 "MCUC 128 10/88  "10
181 "INTRO TO PHYSICS"PRG 186 "LIGHT II"        PRG
187 "LIGHT I"         PRG 110  BLOCKS FREE

Home Applications 6

  0 "HOME APPL. 6    "H6
 33 "EASYML"          PRG   1 "ML R,"           PRG  36 "FAST SEQ DIVIDER"PRG
 99 "EASYCHECKBOOK6.5"PRG  51 "BOOT.COIN"       PRG  32 "SALES EXP1.1"    PRG
 33 "RECIPE SAVER"    PRG  57 "DBASE.COIN"      PRG   6 "EXNEWML"         PRG
 22 "REND-VIA"        PRG  84 "LISTER.COIN"     PRG  49  BLOCKS FREE
  3 "1280VERLAY"      PRG 110 "PIP.64"          PRG
  9 "LOAD ME"         PRG  39 "CD/CASSETTE CAT" PRG

Blazin' Forth - 2 disk set

  0 "BLAZIN'FORTH.DOC"BS
  2 "FPORT.DOC"       SEQ 116 "BFORTH ASM.DOC"  SEQ  77 "STARTING1"       SEQ
  3 "LOGO.DEMO.DOC"   SEQ  79 "BLAZIN.DOC1"     SEQ  45 "STARTING2"       SEQ
  2 "SRC.DOC"         SEQ  44 "BLAZIN.DOC2"     SEQ   4 "READ-ME-FIRST"   PRG
  5 "SRCWRTR.DOC"     SEQ  35 "BLAZIN.DOC3"     SEQ  16 "DOC.RELATED PROG"SEQ
  2 "STARTING.DOC"    SEQ  43 "BLAZIN.DOC4"     SEQ  77 BLOCKS FREE
  2 "BFORTH.DOC.DOC"  SEQ  71 "BLAZIN.DOC5"     SEQ
  2 "BFOR-ASM.DOC.DOC"SEQ  39 "BLAZIN.DOC6"     SEQ
  0 "BLAZIN' SIDE 2  "B2
 25 "SQUEES/UNSQU.LBR"SEQ  12 "LOGO DEMO"       PRG   9 "USQ"             PRG
 95 "BFORTH.PROGAM"   PRG   6 "FPORT"           PRG   4 "USQ.EXE"         PRG
  4 "SRCWRTR"         PRG   5 "SQ11.EXE"        PRG 337  BLOCKS FREE
159 "Q/SRC"           SEQ   8 "SQ V1.1"         PRG